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ClassicsOnline Home » PUCCINI: Madama Butterfly
Giacomo Puccini (1858 - 1924)
Giacomo Puccini was born in Lucca in 1858 into a family
with long-established musical traditions extending back at least to the early eighteenth
century. It was natural that he should follow this tradition and become a
musician, and after the death of his father, when the boy was five, it was
arranged that he should inherit the position of organist at the church of S.
Martino, which meanwhile would be held for him by his uncle. He was trained as
a chorister and as an organist, and only turned to more ambitious composition
at the age of seventeen. A performance of Verdi's opera Aida in Pisa in 1876
inspired operatic aspirations, which could only be pursued adequately at a
major musical centre. Four years later he was able to enter the conservatory in
Milan, assisted financially by an uncle and by a scholarship. There his
teachers were Antonio Bazzini, director of the conservatory from 1882 and now
chiefly remembered by other violinists for one attractive addition to their
repertoire, and Amilcare Ponchielli, then near the end of his career.
Puccini's first opera was Le villi, an operatic treatment
of a subject better known nowadays from the ballet Giselle by Adam. It failed
to win the competition for which it had been entered, but won, instead, a
staging, through the agency of Boito, and publication by Ricordi, who
commissioned the opera Edgar, produced at La Scala in 1889 to relatively little
effect. It was in 1893 that Puccini won his first great success with his
version of the Abbe Prevost's Manon Lescaut, a work that established him as a
possible successor to Verdi. La Boheme followed in 1896. Tosca was first staged
in Rome in 1900, and was followed four years later by Madama Butterfly. A
sensational court case, after the suicide of a servant-girl falsely accused by
Puccini's wife of a close relationship with her husband, was partly
instrumental in delaying further composition, until the completion of La fanciulla
del West, a work set in the Wild West and first performed at the Metropolitan
Opera in New York in 1910. La rondine was staged at Monte Carlo in 1917 and the
triple-bill II trittico in New York the following year. Puccini's last opera,
which he was unable to complete before his death in 1924, was Turandot, set in China,
but based on a play by the 18th century Venetian dramatist Gozzi.
The remoter origin of Madama Butterfly was a short story
by the American writer John Luther Long, who himself had a certain debt to the
French writer Pierre Loti, a more significant literary figure. Loti's Madame Chrysantheme
takes a very cynical view of the temporary marriage of a foreigner and a Japanese
girl, and this novel provided the substance of an opera by Andre Messager in
1893. Long's magazine story was dramatized by David Belasco, and Puccini saw
the play during the course of a visit to London in 1900. At the time he was in
search of a new subject for opera, considering in turn Daudet's Tartarin de Tarascon,
a Zola novel and the fate of the French Queen Marie Antoinette. By March 1901
matters had advanced far enough for Puccini to send his librettist Illica a
translation of Long's story, while assuring him that changes made by Belasco
for the play were improvements. Illica started work on the basis of the story,
which has distinct differences from the play and, in the end, from the opera.
Puccini's publisher, Giulio Ricordi, and Illica were finally convinced of the
viability of the subject only when they had read an Italian translation of
Belasco's play, which they first saw in June that year. The first part of the
libretto reached the composer in October and the completed version the
following summer. As in earlier libretti, 1Iiica collaborated with the well known
dramatist Giuseppe Giacosa, the latter responsible for versification of the
Puccini's work on Madama Butterfly, hampered at first by
delays in the completion of the libretto, was further interrupted when the
composer, an enthusiastic motoring pioneer, was injured in an accident. It was
with some difficulty that he was able to complete the orchestration of the
opera in time for rehearsals for the premiere at La Scala. In the event 17th
February 1904 brought an operatic disaster, with hostile members of the
first-night audience claiming to find immediate repetitions of La Boheme, and
increasing disapproval shown as the work continued. The evocation of the
Japanese countryside by the placing of bird-noises in the auditorium inspired
members of the audience to add their own farmyard imitations, and the performance
continued amid uproar. It was suspected that the supporters of Mascagni had some
hand in this hostile reception at a time when La Scala remained plagued by
contending operatic factions.
There were to be various revisions of the work for
subsequent performances. At the composer's request, Madama Butterfly was
immediately withdrawn from the season at La Scala. Performances in Brescia in
May were successful, however, and Puccini himself insisted that future
productions should allow him control over casting, a provision that both
delayed and ensured the opera's continued success in Italy and abroad.
Madama Butterfly deals with the liaison between the
American Pinkerton and his Japanese wife, Cio-Cio-San, an arrangement that she
sees as permanent but which he regards as a matter of temporary convenience. Pinkerton
deserts Cio-Cio-San, who bears him a son, returning finally with his new wife,
Kate, to whom Butterfly surrenders the boy, before choosing death for herself.
Problems arose with the character of Pinkerton, whose role can hardly be
heroic, while attention and sympathy inevitably must centre on the fifteen-year-old
geisha, Cio-Cio-San, a role allotted finally to a dramatic soprano. Sympathetic
understanding of both is embodied in the American consul Sharpless, while, in
the final version of the opera, the part of Kate is considerably reduced. The
tragedy deals, in fact, with a series of misunderstandings. Cio-Cio-San, with
her idealised view of America, remains truly Japanese in outlook, while Pinkerton
fails completely to understand or value her own simpler view of life. Sharpless
alone can hold a balanced view pf events and their predictable culmination.
The period is the present (1904). The scene is outside a
small Japanese house, set on a hill overlooking the port of Nagasaki. There is
a terrace and a garden, and, in the distance below, the harbour and city.
 The orchestra introduces Act I with a busy opening
theme, followed by a second theme of more overtly Japanese character. As the
curtain rises, the obsequious marriage-broker Goro is seen showing Pinkerton
the delights of the little house on the hill, and demonstrating the use of the
partitions that screen one room from another.
 Pinkerton is surprised at what he sees, to the
delight of Goro, who explains further. Pinkerton asks where the marriage
chamber is, and Goro shows how rooms can be made by moving the screen-walls.
Pinkerton understands that the building is as fragile as a house of cards, but
Goro reassures him of its solidity, and claps his hands.
 At this sign two men and a woman come in and bow down
before Pinkerton. Goro introduces them as Pinkerton's wife's servant, a cook
and a man-servant, naming them as Gentle Cloud, Rising Sun and Wafted Spices.
The first of these, Suzuki, remains kneeling and embarks on a long speech,
praising Pinkerton's smile, and citing the sage Ocunama on the subject. She
rises and follows Pinkerton who has moved away in the garden, assuring him that
a smile disentangles the web of sorrows. Pinkerton shows impatience and Goro, sensing
this, claps his hands again, and the three servants retire at once into the
house. All women are alike, Pinkerton remarks, and Goro now expects the imminent
arrival of Cio-Cio-San, since all is now ready.
 Goro announces the approach of the wedding-party, the
Registrar, the relations, the American consul and the bride, Pinkerton asks if
there are many relatives, and Goro lists Cio-Cio-San's mother, her grandmother,
her uncle, the Bonze, who is not likely to come, and a host of cousins, some
two dozen of them.
 Pinkerton and Butterfly will, of course, provide
ample progeny, Goro continues, bowing obsequiously. The voice of the consul
Sharpless is heard, exhausted by the climb, Goro announces the consul's
arrival, bowing down, and Pinkerton greets him, shaking hands, and telling Goro
to see to some refreshment. The view is a fine one, Pinkerton points out; and
the place is high up, Sharpless complains, but admires the distant city, the
sea and the harbour.
Pinkerton claims that the house obeys the stroke of a
wand and, as Goro bustles in, followed by two servants with bottles and
glasses, explains that he has bought the place for 999 years, with the right to
leave it at a month's notice'
Japanese contracts are as elastic as Japanese houses.
Sharpless remarks that some have found this profitable. They sit at a table on
the terrace to take their refreshment.
 Pinkerton sings in praise of the life of a roving
Yankee, anchoring where he will, He offers Sharpless milk punch or whisky, and
goes on to explain how then, one day, he may sail away: life is to enjoy, a
view that Sharpless finds a simple gospel, but destroying the heart. Pinkerton,
however, is happy to enjoy an arrangement that he has undertaken for 999 years,
but which can be abrogated at a month's notice. They raise their glasses to America,
to the continued strains of The Star-Spangled Banner.
 Pinkerton and Sharpless sit once more, and the latter
asks if the bride is beautiful, bringing from Goro praise of her beauty, comparabale
to a garland of fresh flowers, a star with golden beams, and only costing a
hundred yen. He offers Sharpless an assortment of such beauties. Pinkerton
impatiently tells him to fetch Butterfly and he hurries away. Sharpless warns
Pinkerton that, once married, he will find Butterfly a tartar, but the latter
 Pinkerton sings of his love, or passing fancy, the
delicacy of Cio-Cio-San, like a figure on a Japanese screen, a graceful
 Sharpless tells Pinkerton that he has not seen
Butterfly, but heard her voice, when she visited the consulate: her love for
Pinkerton is sincere and should not be treated lightly. Pinkerton offers his
guest whisky and they drink to Pinkerton's family in America and the latter
adds a toast to his future wife, a true American.
 The distant sound of Butterfly's friends is heard,
as Goro rushes in to announce the imminent arrival of the wedding-party.
Pinkerton and Sharpless move to the back of the garden, from where they can see
the road up the hill. The friends of Butterfly are heard praising the beauty of
the scene, the sky, the sea, with Butterfly herself adding her own voice to
their admiration: she is the happiest girl in Japan, in the world, at the call
of love. The procession comes gradually into view, many of the girls carrying
different coloured parasols. They see Pinkerton, shut their parasols, and,
after Butterfly, greet him.
 They advance ceremoniously towards Pinkerton, who
remarks on the difficulty of the ascent to the house, but Butterfly declares
her impatience to be there the greater. Pinkerton with some irony offers his
compliments, which Butterfly ingenuously returns. Sharpless compliments Miss
Butterfly and asks her if she is from Nagasaki. She tells him that her family
there was once prosperous: no-one ever admits to being born poor and even a
vagabond claims noble lineage, but the strongest oaks can be uprooted in
storms, and she is now a geisha. Sharpless, interested, asks if she has
sisters, but she tells him she has only her mother -a noble lady, Goro adds - now
impoverished. In reply to his tactless question, she admits that her father is
dead, as Goro looks embarrassed and her companions fan themselves nervously.
 Sharpless asks Butterfly how old she is and with
child-like simplicity she asks him to guess: ten - no, more than that; twenty -
no, fifteen, an old woman.
The age for children's games, says Sharpless, and for
sweets, adds Pinkerton.
 Goro now announces the arrival of important
officials, the Imperial Commissioner and the Registrar. Now appear Butterfly's
relatives, who greet her friends and regard the two Americans with some
curiosity, to Pinkerton's expressed amusement. The officials greet Pinkerton
and are taken into the house by Goro. Butterfly's relations now express their
opinions of Pinkerton, who may not be handsome, but is presumably rich.
Pinkerton guesses his mother-in-law to be somewhere among the open fans and
identifies Butterfly's drunken fool of an uncle, Yakuside. Butterfly's family
is equally uncomplimentary, expecting the worst of the match, while Goro goes
among them, telling them to speak more softly. They continue their
disparagement: Yakuside hopes for wine, but there is not even tea for the
guests. Some express more complimentary views on Pinkerton's appearance, while Butterfly's
cousin claims that Goro had given her first choice in the matter, but she had
turned him down.
 At a sign from Goro the guests come together in a
group, still chattering among themselves. Sharpless congratulates Pinkerton,
who is happy with the girl who has turned his head. Sharpless warns him that
Butterfly is serious in her affection, while she calls her mother and
relatives, childishly instructing them to bow to Pinkerton and Sharpless.
 The visitors disperse, some to see the garden, some
the house. Pinkerton takes Butterfly's hand and leads her towards the house,
asking what she thinks of it. She takes out some of the precious things she has
brought with her, carried in the sleeves of her kimono, and hands these objects
over to Suzuki, neckerchiefs, a pipe, a sash, a little clasp, a looking-glass,
a fan, a cosmetic jar. The last of these she throws aside, suspecting
Pinkerton's displeasure. Finally she holds something more precious, not for all
to see, which she carries into the house. Goro, who has reappeared, explains in
Pinkerton's ear that it is a present from the Emperor to Butterfly's father,
with a command that he had obeyed. Butterfly returns with the Ottoke. Pinkerton
examines them curiously, and Butterfly explains that these are the souls of her
ancestors. She tells him how she has visited the Christian mission, but her
uncle, the Bonze, knows nothing of it: she must follow the god of Pinkerton, to
kneel in prayer with him to the same deity and forget her own gods. She throws
herself into his arms, but then holds back, afraid to be overheard by her
 Goro opens the room-screen, revealing everything
ready for the wedding. Sharpless is there, with the officials, and Butterfly
enters and kneels, while Pinkerton stands, with the relatives in the garden now
kneeling. Japanese bells sound, and the Imperial Commissioner announces
permission for Lieutenant Benjamin Franklin Pinkerton of the ship Lincoln, an
officer of the American navy, to marry the girl Butterfly, he by his own will,
she by permission of her family. Pinkerton signs the marriage document,
followed by Butterfly, and Goro announces that all is completed.
 Her friends come forward to congratulate Butterfly,
now Madama F. B. Pinkerton. The officials bring their task to an end and the
Commissioner congratulates Pinkerton, who thanks him. He accompanies Sharpless
out, the latter promising to see Pinkerton the next day. The Registrar takes
his leave, to go down with the other two to the city, but Sharpless turns with
one last word of warning to Pinkerton.
 Now I am with my family, Pinkerton remarks to
himself, as servants offer sake to the guests. He drinks their health, and they
in turn toast the newly married pair.
 The scene is interrupted by angry cries from the
path, at which the company grows pale with alarm. Cio-Cio-San, the voice
shouts, abomination. It is Butterfly's uncle, the Bonze, who makes his
appearance, preceded by two porters bearing lanterns and followed by two
bonzes. The Bonze stretches a threatening hand towards Butterfly and demands an
account of what she has done at the Christian mission. Pinkerton is angry, but
the Bonze continues, his question repeated by Butterfly's relations, scandalised
at this revelation of her infidelity. She covers her face with her hands and
her mother steps forward to defend her, while the Bonze pushes her back and
shouts menacingly at the girl, threatening eternal punishment on her soul.
 Pinkerton interrupts, impatient. The Bonze,
surprised, turns to the guests and tells them to come away with him, leaving
the renegade. Pinkerton bids them all be gone: in his house he wants no
disturbance and no priestcraft. At his words they all hurry towards the path,
to return down to the city. Her mother tries to approach Butterfly, but is
prevented by the others, and the Bonze and his acolytes take the same path down
the hill, leaving Butterfly and Pinkerton alone. She remains for a time, her
hands over her face, while Pinkerton goes to the head of the path to see that
they have all gone. The menacing voices of her uncle and relatives are heard,
as they descend the path, while evening falls.
 Pinkerton approaches her and gently takes her hands
away from her face, telling her not to cry, but she can still hear their
curses. Pinkerton assures her that all her family and all the Bonzes in Japan
are not worth her tears. She begins to be comforted and kisses his hand, a
sign, she thinks, of respect among educated people. The voice of Suzuki is
heard, at her prayers, as Butterfly explains to Pinkerton. It grows darker, as
Pinkerton leads Butterfly towards the house.
 The evening draws on, he tells her, but she cannot
forget what she had heard: now she is alone and a renegade to her faith.
Pinkerton claps his hands and Suzuki and the servants come running in. He tells
them to shut the house for the night: now they are alone, she says, and with no
mad Bonze to worry them, he adds. Suzuki comes to prepare Butterfly for the
 Butterfly, helped by Suzuki, prepares herself for
the night, taking off her bridal dress, and donning a white robe. She sits on a
cushion and looks at herself in the glass. Pinkerton tells her of his love for
her, now she is his alone. Dressed in white, she is like the goddess of the
moon. They stand together, looking at the heavens. She has a moment of fear, as
if hearing again the cries of her family, but then turns again to Pinkerton,
whose love will put to flight all sorrow.
 Night has fallen. Butterfly kneels before Pinkerton
and looks at him with tender supplication, seeking his love, but when he
compares her with a real butterfly, she takes fright: in America butterflies
are caught and killed with a needle through the body, fixed to a board. That,
Pinkerton assures her, is so that they do not flyaway. Comforted she looks
again at the beauty of the stars, as Pinkerton leads her into the house.
Act II Part 1
 The scene is inside Butterfly's house. The room is
half in darkness, with the screen-doors closed.
 Suzuki is praying before an image of the Buddha,
from time to time sounding the prayer-bell. Butterfly stands in thought, as
Suzuki's prayers continue, begging the gods to comfort her mistress. Butterfly
finds the gods of Japan useless: the American god is better, but he does not
know where she lives. Suzuki rises and opens the screen-door to the garden, and
Butterfly asks her how much money they have left. Suzuki takes up a little
money-box and shows her how little they now have: if Pinkerton does not return
soon, they will be in the greatest difficulties. Butterfly is still confident,
otherwise why should Pinkerton have asked the consul to continue providing for
them or have seen to locks for the house. Suzuki has never heard of a foreign
husband who came back again, but Butterfly tells her to be quiet: he had
promised to return when the roses bloom and the robin builds his nest. Suzuki
remains sceptical, but her mistress is confident.
 One fine day, we shall see smoke on the horizon and
then his ship will appear, white in the harbour. Butterfly will wait for him,
and will see a little white figure emerge from the city, gradually, as he
climbs the hill, revealing Pinkerton. For a moment she will tease him by hiding
and then reveal herself, and all will be as before.
 Goro and Sharpless enter the garden. Goro looks into
the house and tells Sharpless to go in, before moving off into the garden. The
consul knocks gently at the inner screen-door, calling her name. She corrects
him: she is Madama Pinkerton. She turns and recognises Sharpless, delighted to
welcome him to an American house, while Suzuki sets a table with material for
smoking. The consul sits down clumsily on a cushion, regarded with amusement by
Butterfly, who asks politely after his ancestors, as she signs to Suzuki to
prepare a pipe for him. He takes a letter from his pocket, the purpose of his
visit, while Butterfly takes a puff at the pipe, before handing it to him. He
refuses it, and she offers him American cigarettes, now rather dry, but he
again refuses. Coming at last to the point, Sharpless tells her that he has had
a letter from Pinkerton, interrupted by her exclamations of delight. Suzuki is
preparing tea, and Butterfly asks the consul if he can tell her when robins
nest in America, a question he finds puzzling, until she explains that that is
when Pinkerton has said he will return. Goro, meanwhile, has approached and is
listening to what she says. He laughs at her ingenuous trust in her husband and
she catches sight of him and acknowledges his presence, not wanting him,
though, to overhear her conversation. Sharpless, in any case, cannot tell her
about the nesting habits of the robin, and will not explain the meaning of her
husband's promise. She tells him that Goro has been pestering her with offers
of marriage from various suitors, particularly one idiot. Here Goro interrupts,
telling the consul that the suitor is the rich man Yamadori: Butterfly has been
cast off by her family and she is poor. At this moment the palanquin of
Yamadori is seen approaching. He descends and greets the consul and Butterfly,
who remains kneeling in the room, while he takes a seat on the terrace.
 Butterfly mocks her suitor, whose divorces have left
him free: to her, though, he would be faithful. Sharpless expresses his fears
of revealing the contents of the letter he holds, while Goro urges the suit of
Yamadori, and Butterfly declares herself married by American law, not Japanese,
to the increased dismay of Sharpless. American laws, she declares, are
different, and magistrates punish husbands who try to desert their wives. She
breaks off to tell Suzuki to bring tea. The men can do nothing: Sharpless is
worried at her credulity, while Goro says that Pinkerton's ship has already
been signalled. Sharpless tells them that he has come to undeceive Butterfly,
whose return with tea cuts short the conversation. She offers tea to Sharpless
and, opening her fan, gestures disparagingly at the other two, who now take
their leave. Yamadori still hopes for success, but bids Sharpless farewell and
steps into his palanquin.
 Sharpless sits down and courteously invites Butterfly
to be seated, drawing Pinkerton's letter from his pocket. She takes the letter,
kisses it and holds it to her heart: Pinkerton is the best man in the world.
She hands the letter back and prepares to listen to its contents. Sharpless
reads out aloud. Pinkerton tells him to seek out that beautiful flower of a
girl - does he really say that,
Butterfly asks. Three years have now passed - Butterfly
interrupts again, in praise of Pinkerton's accuracy - and perhaps Butterfly no
longer remembers him. Again she interrupts, calling Suzuki to witness her
fidelity. If she still wishes him well and still waits for him - sweet words,
she cries – Sharpless must carefully prepare her for the blow. Butterfly does
not understand the import of the words: Pinkerton is coming back, and she is
 Sharpless puts the letter back in his pocket, cursing
Pinkerton under his breath, and asks Butterfly what she will do if Pinkerton
never comes back. She pauses, dumbfounded, and then replies with childish
innocence, telling the consul that she can do two things, return to her life
singing to entertain people or, better, die. Sharpless, moved, turns and takes
her hands in his, urging her, in a fatherly tone, to accept Yamadori. She
withdraws her hands: how can Sharpless give her such advice? He is nonplussed,
and Butterfly claps her hands, summoning Suzuki to see the consul out. Suddenly
sorry for her haste, she sends Suzuki out again, and Sharpless apologizes for
his cruelty. Butterfly tells him he has caused her great pain. She staggers for
a moment, but recovers: she seemed for a moment to die, death like a cloud
passing over the sea.
 Butterfly asks if Sharpless has forgiven her, and,
suddenly resolute, runs into the room to the left and returns, triumphantly
holding her child, something that Pinkerton cannot ignore. She sets the child down
on the floor and asks Sharpless if he has ever seen a Japanese child with blue
eyes, lips like this, and golden hair. Pinkerton, she tells him, does not know,
because the child was born after he left: the consul must write and tell him
that his son is waiting for him and he must hurry home. She kneels by the side
of the boy and kisses him tenderly: surely Pinkerton cannot hesitate.
 Butterfly holds the boy up again: must his mother now
carry him through wind and rain through the city and beg, to keep them both in
food and clothing, crying out for charity? While the child plays unconcernedly
with a doll, she laments that she must dance and sing, as a geisha once more,
her song of joy ending in sorrow. She throws herself on her knees before
Sharpless, declaring death preferable to such a fate, and falling to the floor
by the side of her child, whom she now embraces passionately.
 Butterfly excuses herself for the moment and gently
offers Sharpless her hand, then putting the child's hand in the consul's. He
admires the boy and asks his name. She tells him that today his name is Dolore
(Sorrow), but the day his father returns he will be Gioia (Joy). Sharpless
promises to let Pinkerton know.
 Sharpless takes his leave. The voice of Suzuki is
heard, shouting abuse, and she comes into the room, dragging in Goro, who tries
in vain to break away. She tells Butterfly that this vampire has been spreading
rumours about the paternity of the child. Goro justifies himself, claiming that
he has only said that in America a child like this would be an outcast all his
life. With a cry Butterfly seizes a knife from the household shrine and accuses
Goro of lying. He falls to the ground, calling out in fear, while Butterfly
threatens him with death, if he repeats such a lie. Suzuki picks the child up
and carries him into the room on the left. Butterfly spurns Goro with her foot,
and he makes his escape. She stands motionless for a moment, and then puts the
knife back, thinking now of her child, to her both a sorrow and a comfort: his
father and protector will come and take him away to a far land. At this moment
the sound of a cannon is heard.
 Suzuki sees a warship in the harbour, and Butterfly,
who joins her on the terrace, sees that the ship is white and flying the
American flag. She takes a telescope from the little table and runs again to
the terrace, trembling with emotion, trying to decipher the name of the ship - Abraham
Lincoln. In joy she hands the telescope to Suzuki and goes back into the room,
her faith in Pinkerton now justified: her love has come back to her. She tells
Suzuki to gather blossom from the cherry-tree. How long must they wait? One
hour? Longer, Suzuki thinks. Two hours perhaps?
 The whole house must be full of flowers, as the
night is full of shining stars, Butterfly orders, urging Suzuki into the
garden. Must she pick all the flowers, she asks, but her mistress wants all of
them, peach-blossom, violet, jasmine. The garden will be like winter, Suzuki
complains, but in the house, Butterfly says, it will be spring. They busy
themselves decorating the house with flowers: now the long, sad period of
waiting and watching is over. Suzuki has gathered all the flowers and helps her
mistress, garlanding the room with lilies and roses and scattering petals.
 Suzuki sets two lamps on the low dressing-table,
where Butterfly is preparing herself: but first the child must be dressed. The
sun is setting, as Suzuki puts the boy down by his mother, who looks at herself
in the glass, regarding her faded beauty. She takes rouge for her cheeks, and
for her son, while Suzuki sees to her hair. Now the Bonze's curse has come to
nothing and she can be rid of Yamadori. Butterfly asks Suzuki to bring her
wedding robe, which she dons, while Suzuki dresses the child. Pinkerton will
delight to see her as he did on that first day. She tells Suzuki to put a poppy
in her hair and makes three holes in the screen, so that, like little mice,
they can watch in secret. The night grows darker and Suzuki closes the door-screen.
The three of them remain by the door-screen, in which holes have been made for
them to look out.
 They patiently await Pinkerton's arrival,
accompanied by the distant humming of unseen voices. The little boy falls
asleep, as does Suzuki, but Butterfly remains watching.
Act II Part 2
 The orchestra introduces the last part of the drama,
hinting at the tragedy to come, Dawn is breaking and Butterfly is seen,
motionless, still watching, while the other two sleep. The distant cries of
sailors are heard and the sounds of activity in the harbour.
 The far-away sound of the French horn heralds
daybreak: birds sing in the garden, as the sun rises.
 Suzuki awakes with a start, rises and taps Butterfly
on the shoulder. He will come, she says, you will see, picking up her sleeping
child, to carry him into the adjacent room. Suzuki tells her to rest: she will
wake her when Pinkerton comes. Butterfly's voice is heard from the next room,
as she nurses her child in her arms.
 A gentle knocking is heard and Suzuki calls out to
know who it is. Pinkerton tells her to be silent as he and Sharpless tiptoe in.
Suzuki tells them that Butterfly is exhausted after watching all night. In
reply to Pinkerton's question, she tells him that they knew of his arrival,
because for three years her mistress has examined every ship that came into the
harbour for signs of his return: yesterday they decked the house with flowers.
Sharpless, deeply moved, reminds Pinkerton of what he has already told him of
Butterfly's fidelity and love. Suzuki sees a strange woman in the garden and,
with increasing agitation, asks who it is. Pinkerton, embarrassed, explains
that the woman is with him, but it is Sharpless who reveals the truth: the
woman is Pinkerton's wife. Suzuki, horrified, raises her arms to heaven then
falls prostrate on the ground, calling on the holy spirits of her ancestors,
now that Butterfly's sun has set for ever. Sharpless tries to explain that they
have sought her out so early in the morning for her help in dealing with
 Sharpless can offer little comfort but Pinkerton's
American wife will take good care of the child and his future. As he urges
Suzuki to persuade Butterfly to surrender the child, Pinkerton, in some
agitation, paces the room, seeing the flowers, smelling their bitter fragrance,
and recalling the past. Suzuki is appalled at the proposal of the consul, while
Pinkerton notices now his own portrait. He cannot bear to see Butterfly and
tells Sharpless he will wait for him outside, full of remorse. Sharpless
reminds him of his earlier warnings, now fulfilled.
 Pinkerton, in sorrow, bids a passionate farewell to
his former love, leaving the consul and his wife Kate to see to matters.
 Suzuki now comes from the garden, followed by Kate,
who speaks gently to Suzuki, reminding her of her promise to speak to Butterfly
on what has been proposed: Kate will be a mother to Butterfly's child. Suzuki
tells her that she must speak to Butterfly alone, she will weep so much.
 Now Butterfly's voice is heard, calling Suzuki. She
appears at the door of the room, and Kate, anxious not to be seen, retires into
the garden. Suzuki assures her that she has not deserted her post, but tries
unsuccessfully to prevent her coming into the room. Butterfly is jubilant:
Pinkerton is here, but where is he hiding? She sees Sharpless, but Pinkerton is
not to be seen. Suddenly she catches sight of Kate in the garden, and looks
fixedly at Sharpless, asking him who the woman is and what she wants. Suzuki
sobs quietly to herself, and Butterfly now begins to guess what has happened.
 Like a child, Butterfly addresses Suzuki, begging
her not to cry, but to say just yes or no: is Pinkerton still alive? Yes. But
they have told you he will not come back? Suzuki is silent. Butterfly, in
anger, demands an answer. He will never return. Now Butterfly understands and
looks at Kate in fascination, a woman who strikes such fear into her. Sharpless
explains that Kate is the innocent cause of her sorrow. Full realisation dawns:
Kate is Pinkerton's wife, and now for Butterfly all has ended: they even want
to take her son. Sharpless urges her to make this sacrifice for the child, and
Butterfly, distraught, now agrees, since her husband must be obeyed. Kate now
approaches, asking forgiveness, and Butterfly greets her as the happiest of
women, telling her to feel no sadness for her. She will give the child to
Pinkerton, if he comes for him.
 Kate and Sharpless leave, and Butterfly falls
weeping to the ground. Suzuki runs to help her, putting her hand on her
mistress's heart, which beats like the wings of an imprisoned fly. Aware that
it is now full day, Butterfly tells Suzuki there is too much light, too much of
spring, and bids her shut the door-screen, so that the room is now in half
darkness. She asks where her son is, and Suzuki tells her that he is playing.
Butterfly tells her to play with him, but Suzuki is at first reluctant to leave
her, until her mistress commands her to do so. Butterfly now kneels before the
image of the Buddha, motionless and in sad thought. Then, rising, she goes to
the household-shrine and takes from it the dagger, kept there in a lacquered
 She kisses the blade and tries the point with her
hand, then reading with a low voice the words inscribed on it: "He who can
no longer live with honour, dies honourably". She puts the dagger to her
throat, but the door suddenly opens, and Suzuki pushes the boy towards his
mother, who drops the dagger and embraces and kisses him. She then bids her child
farewell, now that he can travel to another land and no longer be troubled by
her. She takes the child and blindfolds him, putting in his hands an American
flag and telling him to play. She then picks up the dagger and moves behind the
screen. The dagger is heard falling and Butterfly struggles towards the boy,
embracing him once more, before collapsing. At this moment the voice of
Pinkerton is heard, as he climbs the hill to the house. The door opens
violently and Pinkerton and Sharpless rush in. Butterfly can only gesture
towards the child, as she dies. Pinkerton falls on his knees by her side, while
Sharpless sees to the child. The tragedy has run its course.
Last Albums Viewed
PUCCINI: Madama Butterfly