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ClassicsOnline Home » HAYDN, F.J.: String Quartets Nos. 5-8, Op. 1, Nos. 0 and 6, and Op. 2, Nos. 1 and 2 (Kodaly Quartet)
"...splendid new release by the Kodály Quartet...Their forceful performances are amongst the most intelligent and thoughtful that I have heard."
"vibrant performances with a sound to warm all but the sternest hearts"
"the Kodaly Quartet plays them with rich tone, obvious affection and polish"
Joseph Haydn (1732 - 1809)
String Quartet in E Flat Major, Op. 1,
String Quartet in C Major, Op. 1, No.6
String Quartet in A Major, Op. 2, No.1
String Quartet in E Major, Op. 2, No.2
Joseph Haydn was born in the village of
Rohrau in 1732, the son of a wheelwright. Trained at the choir-school of St.
Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna, he spent some years earning a living as best he
could from teaching and playing the violin or keyboard, and was able to learn
from the old musician Porpora, whose assistant he became. Haydn's first
appointment was in 1759 as Kapellmeister to a Bohemian nobleman, Count von
Morzin. This was followed in 1761 by employment as Vice-Kapellmeister to one of
the richest men in the Empire, Prince Paul Anton Esterházy, succeeded on his
death in 1762 by his brother Prince Nikolaus. On the death in 1766 of the
elderly and somewhat obstructive Kapellmeister, Gregor Werner, Haydn succeeded
to his position, to remain in the same employment, nominally at least, for the
rest of his life.
On the completion of the magnificent
palace at Esterháza, in the Hungarian plains under the new Prince, Haydn
assumed command of an increased musical establishment. Here he had
responsibility for the musical activities of the palace, which included the provision
and direction of instrumental music, opera and theatre music, and music for the
church. For his patron he provided a quantity of chamber music of all kinds,
particularly for the Prince's own peculiar instrument, the baryton, a bowed
string instrument with sympathetic strings that could also be plucked.
On the death of Prince Nikolaus in 1790,
Haydn was able to accept an invitation to visit London, where he provided music
for the concert season organized by the violinist-impresario Salomon. A second
successful visit to London in 1794 and 1795 was followed by a return to duty
with the Esterházy family, the new head of which had settled principally at the
family property in Eisenstadt, where Haydn had started his career. Much of the
year, however, was to be spent in Vienna, where Haydn passed his final years,
dying in 1809, as the French armies of Napoleon approached the city yet again.
Haydn lived during the period of the 18th
century that saw the development of instrumental music from the age of Bach and
Handel to the era of the classical sonata, with its tripartite form, the basis
of much instrumental composition. The string quartet itself, which came to
represent classical music in its purest form, grew from a genre that was
relatively insignificant, at least in its nomenclature, the Divertimento, into
music of greater weight, substance and complexity, although Haydn, like any
great master, knew well how to conceal the technical means by which he achieved
his ends. The exact number of string quartets that Haydn wrote is not known,
although he listed some 83. The earlier of these, often under the title
Divertimento, proclaim their origin and purpose. The last quartet, Opus 103,
started in 1803, remained unfinished.
In later life Haydn claimed to have
discovered the string quartet form by accident. The six quartets later
published by Haydn's pupil Pleyel as Opus 1 were certainly among the
first he wrote in this form, the first four of them issued in Paris by M. de la
Chevardiere in 1764. The Quartet in E flat major, curiously numbered Op.
1, No.0, was not included in Pleyel's collection, which followed de la
Chevardiere, but was published in Paris by Huberty in 1764, described there as Simphonia
a piu Stromenti obligati, and in a slightly altered form in Amsterdam by
the publisher J. J. Hummel. Some of the quartets of Opus 2 were also
first issued in Paris by de la Chevardiere, but the six compositions of Opus
2 were collected by Hummel in Amsterdam, two of them apparently his own
adaptation of works for two horns and strings, conceived by the composer as
All the present quartets follow the five
movement form of the Divertimento, their minuets framing a central slow
movement. It is probable that the E flat Quartet, Op. 1, No.0, and the Quartet
in C major, Op. 1, No.6, were written during Haydn's association with Baron
Carl Joseph von Fürnberg at the castle of Weinzierl, where he played quartets
with the parish priest, the estate manager and one of the Albrechtsberger
brothers. This association seems to have started in 1757 and came to an end in
1759 with his appointment to the musical establishment of Count von Morzin. The
first movements of these quartets are much simpler and shorter than those of
later works in the form. The two minuets frame contrasting trios, with a
pleasingly ornamented slow movement at the heart of each work, and a charming
and rapid final movement.
as first published, included works in different forms, one of them certainly
not by Haydn. The authentic quartets of Opus 2 are Nos. 1, 2, 4 and 6.
The first of these, in the key of A major, was written in the early 1760s. A
slightly more elaborate first movement leads to a minuet with an A minor trio,
an ornamented D major slow movement, a second minuet, with a light-hearted
trio, and an energetic final movement. Opus 2, No.2, again written
between 1760 and 1762, is in E major. It has a first movement in
embryonic sonata-form and a first minuet framing a contrasted E minor trio. The
Adagio has first violin figuration of some elaboration, closely matched with
that of the second violin, while the second minuet and trio follow the key
pattern of the first. The quartet ends with a cheerful Presto that has its own
The members of the Kodály Quartet
were trained at the Budapest Ferenc Liszt Academy, and three of them, the
second violin Támas Szabo, viola-player Gábor Fias and cellist János Devich,
were formerly in the Sebestyén Quartet, which was awarded the jury's special
diploma at the 1966 Geneva International Quartet Competition and won first
prize at the 1968 Leo Weiner Quartet Competition in Budapest. Since 1970, with
the violinist Attila Falvay, the quartet has been known as the Kodály Quartet,
a title adopted with the approval of the Hungarian Ministry of Culture
and Education. The Kodály Quartet has given concerts throughout Europe, in the
Soviet Union and in Japan, in addition to regular appearances in Hungary both
in the concert hall and on television and has made for Naxos highly acclaimed
recordings of string quartets by Ravel, Debussy, Mozart and Haydn.
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HAYDN, F.J.: String Quartets Nos. 5-8, Op. 1, Nos....