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ClassicsOnline Home » STRAUSS I, J.: Edition - Vol. 7
Johann Strauss Snr • Edition - Vol. 7
[Track 1] Mittel gegen den Schlaf (Cure for Sleep),
Walzer, Op. 65
Johann Strauss performed his waltz Mittel gegen den
Schlaf for the first time on 28 August 1833 at the Sperl. The summer
festival he had arranged there had the title 'Sperl in Floribus'. The festival
was very vividly described by the prominent journalist and later director of
the Royal and Imperial Court Burgtheater, Heinrich Laube, in his book Reise
durch das Biedermeier (Journey through the Biedermeier). There he provided
a chapter with the title 'Sperl in Floribus', so that his description can be
exactly dated. He was not only impressed by the enthusiasm of the dancers, but
also by the fascination that Strauss, as conductor and leading violinist, held
for his musicians and the guests at the festival. Laube called him 'the
Austrian Napoleon' and enthusiastically described how he dominated the public with
almost demonic intensity.
That Johann Strauss had called his dedication waltz Cure
for Sleep was actually superfluous, since he saw to it, as conductor, that
no visitor to the summer festival could think of sleep and really would not
want to. The Theaterzeitung in its notice of the festival was able to
state with certainty that 'the festival at the Sperl lasted into the early
Johann Strauss's waltz allowed and allows no thoughts of
fatigue and sleep. An introduction, which starts in the fastest tempo, Presto,
and after a few tuneful transitional bars leads to a high-spirited first waltz
section, is followed by five further waltzes, of which the third and fifth must
have particularly set the dancers flying, just as Heinrich Laube described it
for his contemporaries and posterity in his study. The extensive coda, too,
allowed the visitors to the summer festival no chance of sleeping.
When the work appeared from the publisher Tobias Haslinger
on 12 November 1833, Heinrich Laube was no longer in Vienna. He could not
acquire a copy of the piano edition and therefore forgot the title of the work,
at the first performance of which he had been present at the Sperl, Cure for
[Track 2] Jugendfeuer-Galopp (Fire of Youth Galop), Op.
Before Johann Strauss started out on his great concert-tour
to Prague, Leipzig, Northern Germany, Holland and Belgium on 2 September 1836
he arranged on 22 August at The Golden Pear a summer assembly under the title Humoristisches
Lebensbild (Humorous Picture of Life). He was clearly delighted at the
coming journey, and saw the assembly as a farewell festival. On 25 August 1836
the Theaterzeitung reported the evening at The Golden Pear: 'On Monday,
22 August, Herr Strauss gave a kind of farewell festival before his journey. As
usual, everything that Herr Strauss arranges is uncommonly brilliant. So too
was this evening. As far as the music is concerned, Herr Strauss took pains,
through the energetic performance of his splendid waltzes, to electrify the proceedings,
as he played his newest work again with his whole soul. There were also galops,
which were received with a storm of applause.'
The reporter did not give the name of the new set of galops,
but from the announcements and other reports it seems that on 22 August 1836
Strauss presented his Jugendfeuer-Galopp (Fire of Youth Galop). This was
issued by Tobias Haslinger in a plain edition on 7th November 1836 as Op. 90
and advertised in the Wiener Zeitung. That this cheerful work was 'received
with a storm of applause' can be no surprise. The fire of youth promised by the
title pervades the two-part work, ending with a spirited finale. Fiery violin
semiquavers and bold dashes of melody, which only subside in a quieter trio
section, stamp the character of the work. It is much livelier than the similarly
named fast polka of his son Eduard, which was first performed on 22 November
1882. There is certainly a technical progress, but in music every era has its
[Track 3] Emlék Pestre - A nemes magyar Nemzetnek ajánlva
Erinnerung an Pesth (Souvenir of Pest), Walzer, Op. 66 - Der
edlen ungarischen Nation gewidmet (Dedicated to the noble Hungarian people)
In 1833 Johann Strauss travelled with his musicians for the
first time in his career as a conductor. On 12th March 1833 he gave a guest
performance in Pressburg (Bratislava), and on 5 November he went on to Pest. The lessee of the Redoutensaal, Péter Fischer, had invited him to give a guest
performance. On 7 November he appeared for the first time before the public in
the Redoutensaal. He offered a cleverly chosen programme that included not only
his own compositions but also the Radetzky March. This aroused the
enthusiasm of the many Hungarians present.
It was not only the Hungarian newspapers that printed
notices of this appearance. The Vienna Theaterzeitung also published a
notice on 16 November: 'Hardly had this Mozart of the waltz, Beethoven of the
cotillon, Paganini of the galop, Rossini of the medley, stepped onto the
platform of the Redoutensaal Amazon Room than a great torrent of applause broke
out from every corner. Herr Strauss had to struggle with unusual delays, but conquered
with the first stroke of the bow.'
The second appearance in the same room of the Pest Redoute
on 10 November also released a storm of acclaim and enthusiastic notices. This
annoyed the contributor to Der Sammler. He met the report of the theatre
paper of 16 November with an article in which he fired off: 'And who is this
genius of an artist? A fiddler who composes waltzes and marches and puts
together quodlibets! Everyone who hears the words 'art' and 'artist' so frivolously
used and desecrated, when Strauss plays, must feel real indignation'. On 19
December in the same paper the contributor Sigmund Schlesinger countered with: 'I
wager Herr Strauss is neither so lacking in modesty nor so presumptuous as to
be responsible for the many mistakes that journalists make in their praises'.
It is possible that Sigmund Schlesinger could be referred to
in a draft of a letter by Johann Strauss, preserved in the Vienna Philharmonic
Society archive. It says, among other things: 'I have nothing to do with them
calling me an artist, a thing I never posed as. The harmony of all united in
joy is my only aim'. Johann Strauss had, incidentally, already announced that
when he gave his Op. 63 waltz the title Der Frohsinn mein Ziel (Cheerfulness
It is noticeable how, after a relatively short period of
activity, Strauss could arouse such controversy. This was also evidence of his
popularity. It is naturally somewhat incidental that all these occurrences
should have come about with the Emlék Pestre waltz. Naturally the work
reflects the same impression as was given by the performance by its composer on
27 November at the Katharine-Ball at the Sperl. In the introduction of this master-waltz
Strauss uses a genuine Hungarian dance, a Lassu, in sixteen bars, before
the swaying, typically Viennese waltz begins. The second waltz section is
rather playful and the coda, too starts with the same motif, before the return
of the first waltz section in conclusion.
When the waltz Souvenir of Pest appeared from Tobias
Haslinger on 18 January 1834, the controversy occasioned by the Strauss
concerts in Pest was forgotten. Now every music-lover could see for himself
this product of the tour, a masterpiece by the thirty-year-old Johann Strauss.
[Track 4] Cachucha-Galopp, Op. 97
In July 1837 the celebrated dancers Fanny and Therese
Elssler visited Vienna. On 18 and 19 July they both danced in the ballet Sylphide
to a sold-out Court Opera Theatre. On 22 July, Fanny Elssler inserted for
the first time into the opera Die Ballnacht (The Night of the Ball) a Cachucha,
a Spanish dance that she had brought with her from Paris. The public was
immediately seized with enthusiasm. On 23 and 25 July Fanny had to dance the Cachucha
three times. When the sisters travelled back to Paris again on 5 August,
they left Vienna in a Cachucha fever.
Johann Strauss reacted quickly. He wanted to make use of the
enthusiasm for the Cachucha. He hurriedly wrote his Cachucha Galop.
On the original score of the work is the note: 'This galop was composed in one
hour for the opening of the ball, copied by the copyist, played without
rehearsal, greeted with extraordinary applause and repeated three times. Adolf
The ball mentioned took place on 7 August 1837 at The Golden
Pear in a summer festival under the title 'Flora's Festival of Joy'. Two days
later the work appeared from Tobias Haslinger. Now all Vienna could dance the Cachucha
Galop. It was heard at every ball, as long as the Cachucha craze lasted. In
October 1837 a contributor in the Theaterzeitung complained: 'What have
we not all suffered from this Cachucha! The Cachucha piano-pounders have
destroyed all our ear-drums with it.' When, however, in the theatre in Vienna the corpulent Wenzel Scholz performed the Cachucha in the costume of Fanny Elssler,
the public had had enough. Johann Strauss, however, had enjoyed his success.
The Cachucha part of the work, accompanied by castanets, and the coda offer
original melodies and Strauss skilfully filled out the trio section.
The original Cachucha Galop survives in this form and can still delight
listeners, also as a souvenir of the 'divine' Fanny Elssler.
[Track 5] Gabrielen-Walzer, Op. 68
Sr. kaiserlichen Hoheit, dem durchlauchtigsten Prinzen und
Herrn Anton Victor, Erzherzog von Österreich in tiefster Ehrfurcht gewidmet (Dedicated
to His Most Serene Imperial Highness Prince Anton Victor, Archduke of Austria, in profoundest respect)
The introduction, starting with a gentle tremolo, may
contribute to the fact that this charming work was later described by
imaginative writers as a 'waltz of the dead' and taken as the occasion for
horror stories. Contemporaries knew nothing of this. It is unthinkable that
Strauss would have dedicated to Archduke Anton Victor, the brother of the
Emperor Franz I and patron of the Vienna Philharmonic Society a composition
that had such disagreeable associations. As the popular Archduke was also
patron of the Society for the Support of the Impoverished Blind, the first
performance of the Gabriel Waltz took place on 20 January 1834 at what
the Viennese called the 'Blind Ball' on 20 January 1834.
The work is charming and provides in its five waltz sections
some attractive melodies, easy on the ear, but cannot be classified as a
masterpiece. It was also not repeated again by Johann Strauss himself and his
sons. Nevertheless it is worth hearing the waltz once again.
[Track 6] Boulogner-Galopp, Op. 104
nach Motiven aus der Oper Die Botschafterin von D.
Auber (on motifs from Auber's opera The Ambassadress)
Johann Strauss performed the Boulogne Galop and the
waltz Freuden-Grüsse (Joyful Geetings) for the first time on 13 January
1839 at the Sperl. This was his first appearance after his extended
concert-tour to France and England. Strauss, completely exhausted from the
strains of this tour, returned to Vienna on 16 December 1838, but recovered
with astonishing speed.
He must have brought the Boulogne Galop with him from
his journey. The opera The Ambassadress with music by
Daniel-François-Esprit Auber, was first given in Vienna on 23 July 1839 at the
Josefstadt Theatre. Since the first performance of the work, its original title
L'Ambassadrice, had already been given on 21 December 1836 at the Paris
Opéra-Comique, Strauss could have made himself familiar there with melodies
from the work.
The tribute to the French city of Boulogne becomes understandable when it
is remembered that Strauss stayed there in September 1838 and won great success
with his concerts.
[Track 7] Pfennig-Walzer (Penny Waltz), Op. 70
In 1834 there was great advertising in the Wiener Zeitung
for the new Penny Magazine. This was a Leipzig production that
published articles on many problems, particularly subjects of physical and
natural science, in popular scientific form. The copies of the magazine,
printed on poor paper, were cheap. Tobias Haslinger immediately seized on the
fashion and issued a Musical Penny Magazine that was at first bought
with similar enthusiasm. It was, nevertheless, predictable that the demand for
this cheap product would not last long, and so it came about.
Johann Strauss seized the opportunity and arranged a Penny
Magazine Ball on 5 February 1834 at the Sperl for his benefit. A dedication
waltz was needed. Strauss performed for that event a relatively simple, but
obviously not 'cheap' (that is, primitive) composition. Naturally he also
followed the fashion and called the work the Penny Waltz. An
introduction of eleven bars is followed by five waltz sections (the third has 67
bars, the prescribed repetitions included). In the cheerful coda there are
contrasting loud and soft dynamics, providing an interesting conclusion.
The publisher Tobias Haslinger issued the Penny Waltz on
14 May 1834 in a separate and careful edition and not in the Musical Penny
Magazine. He provided the piano edition with a very charming, elegant
title-page. The fashion for various penny magazines was almost over, yet at
Carnival in 1834 the Penny Waltz gave the dancers much pleasure.
[Track 8] Der Carneval in Paris Galopp, Op. 100 (The
Carnival in Paris)
Widmung: Den schönen Pariserinnen (Dedication: To the fair
ladies of Paris)
On 4 October 1837 Johann Strauss and his musicians travelled
from Vienna to Paris. They passed through Munich, Ulm, Stuttgart, Carlsruhe and
Strasbourg, in all of which Strauss gave concerts or arranged balls, before reaching
Paris. After arriving there he gave his first concert on 1 November 1837 at
the Gymnase Musical. In the front rows were all the leading composers who lived
and worked in Paris: Auber, Halévy, Adam, Berlioz, Cherubini and Meyerbeer.
The verdict came very soon. The audience was full of
enthusiasm for Strauss and his musicians. That night Reichmann, a member of the
orchestra, was able to write to Vienna: 'We have triumphed. And what did the
great slaughter cost, that our master achieved with his baton? Some horse-hair,
resin for a sou and some blowing from full cheeks.'
The subsequent engagements of the Strauss orchestra in Paris brought complete success. On one occasion Nicolò Paganini came to a concert. Strauss
greeted him. Paganini stood up and embraced the Viennese musician. The public
was enthusiastic. Since everyone respected Paganini for his presence and his
gesture, he too won the acclaim of the public. On 27 and 28 January 1838 there
was a masked ball at St Honoré. Johann Strauss used the opportunity and
presented on 27 January presented a new galop that he called The Carnival in
Paris and gallantly designated it a tribute to the 'fair ladies of Paris'. He sent the score to Vienna, so that Tobias Haslinger could publish it on 12
February 1838. The Viennese were already informed of the proceedings in Paris. On 10 February the Theaterzeitung (No. 30) had published a contribution
which, among other things, said: 'On 27 January Strauss and the conductor
Dufresne directed their united orchestras in alternation. After the Viennese composer
wrote a spirited galop, Le carneval de Paris, hommage aux dames, for
this night, the dance was arranged for piano and given out free to the ladies
present. Everyone was enchanted by the gallantry of the Viennese conductor.'
On 19 February 1838 the Theaterzeitung (No. 36)
announced the appearance of Carnival in Paris from Tobias Haslinger: 'This
galop bears the stamp of originality. French vivacity is combined with German
geniality. Particularly lovely is the first part of the trio, with the second
part an irresistible invitation to the dance.' Little can be added to this
verdict of a contemporary. After four introductory bars the galop begins with a
lively motif, followed, after the repetition, by a charming melody in the
second part. It continues with spirited passages of sixteen bars respectively
that can certainly be described as 'an irresistible invitation to the dance'.
[Track 9] Iris-Walzer, Op. 75
Dem hochgebornen Herrn Carl von Gervais, kais. russ. Hofrath
und Botschafts-Sekretär am k.k.Hofe
hochachtungsvoll gewidmet (Most respectfully dedicated to
the Honourable Herr Carl von Gervais, Imperial Russian Counsellor and Embassy
Secretary at the Royal and Imperial Court)
The first performance of the Iris Waltz was at the Iris
summer festival on 27 August 1834 at the Sperl, held as a benefit for Johann
Strauss. Strauss, of course, conducted the music himself for this evening.
There was the now usual crowd of visitors and C.F. Hirsch, 'Lamperl-Hirsch',
was able again to use all his artistry in lighting. He saw to the 'fairy'
illumination of the garden.
The title of the summer festival pleased the public. Irises
were the flowers that, together with larkspur and clematis, were blossoming in
every garden. This corresponded with the Biedermeier period that then enchanted
people. All these circumstances led to the success of the Iris summer festival
at the Sperl and of the Iris Waltz.
The work was issued by Tobias Haslinger on 18 November 1834
and found many buyers. The piano edition, which had an evocative title-page, is
today a much sought after and admired rarity. The work that certainly played an
important rôle in the customary music of the Biedermeier, after a short
introduction of twelve bars, offers a charming waltz, consisting of five
sections and an extended coda which quotes the melody of the first and fifth waltz
section and offers a rapid stretta.
The Iris Waltz is perhaps no masterwork, but Johann
Strauss later was happy to repeat it often in his concerts and balls in Berlin.
[Track 10] Original-Parade-Marsch, Op. 73
The 'Vienna Citizens' March' was issued by Tobias Haslinger
as Original Parade March, Op. 73, on 27 June 1832. On the title-page of
this edition Johann Strauss was for the first time designated 'Conductor in the
Honourable First Citizens' Regiment'. The first performance of the work took
place not at a parade but on 15 October 1832 at the Sperl. The return from the
sale of the march was spent, like the return from the ball at the Sperl on 15
October 1832, on funds for the poor.
The march, in the traditional form with an Allegro marcia
framing a Trio, offers vigorous melodies to which one could dance
just as well as march. At the ball at the Sperl the march was danced. It is no
longer known whether it was also used for a parade of the Citizen Guard in the
Inner Burghof. In the newspapers of 1832 no report of a parade is found.
[Track 11] Erinnerung an Berlin (Souvenir of Berlin), Walzer, Op. 78
Ihrer königlichen Hoheit, der durchlauchtigsten Frau Auguste,
vermählten Prinzessin Wilhelm von Preussen, gebornen Prinzessin von Weimar etc.
etc. etc., in tiefster Ehrfurcht gewidmet (Dedicated to Her Most Serene Royal
Highness Auguste, Princess Wilhelm of Prussia, née Princess of Weimar etc. etc.
etc. in profoundest respect)
At the end of October 1834 Johann Strauss with his thirty
musicians undertook a concert-tour, a bold venture in the existing
circumstances, to Berlin. Nevertheless, he knew that the fame of his name and
enthusiasm for his waltzes and galops had already made some way there. He
trusted that there would be audiences enough at his performances and that the
financial risk was justifiable. Furthermore, he was assured that he would
certainly find well-disposed patrons.
So it turned out. On 12 November 1834 Johann Strauss, after
some preparation, gave an evening musical entertainment at the Royal Theatre.
That this possibility was open to him was already a mark of distinction. A numerous
audience attended that very quickly burst out in stormy applause at the
performance of the energetic Viennese conductor.
In consequence on 15 November the Intendant of the Royal Court Theatre arranged a ball in the same building. On 18 November Strauss was
responsible for the dance music at the King of Prussia's ball. Now he was able
to arrange for the next evening a benefit concert in the Royal Theatre that was
equally successful. For 20 November the Russian envoy invited Strauss to his
palace, on 22 November the orchestra played at an evening dance for Prince Carl
of Prussia. On 25 November there followed a concert in the Königstadt Theatre.
During the course of this concert Strauss was invited immediately after the end
of the event to the castle of Prince Ludwig of Prussia. There the members of
the court were gathered to experience the Viennese conductor in that capacity
and as a composer. The King presented him with a gift of money and the Tsar of
Russia, there as a guest, with a gold snuff-box. The trip to Berlin had been
worthwhile. Strauss returned to Vienna by way of Leipzig, Dresden and Prague.
At home the reports of the success of this journey had been
followed with attention - and envy. The view was immediately spread that these
reports were exaggerated and had been overrated. Johann Strauss paid no
attention to jealousy of this kind and on 14 December 1834 again gave a concert
in Vienna. On 28 January 1835 he profited from the opportunity of the charity
ball of the Austrian court, attended by many people, for the benefit of the
Society for the Support of the Impoverished Blind, held at the Sperl, to offer
for the first time a new waltz with the title Souvenir of Berlin. This
he dedicated to Princess Auguste of Prussia, née Princess of Weimar. The artistically
inclined wife of the future Emperor Wilhelm I was to play an interesting part
also in the life of the younger Johann Strauss. The Theaterzeitung was
able to note on 31 January 1835 that 'the new waltzes were received with great
applause. They come from the acknowledged genius of this distinguished expert
of our dance music'.
On 26th February the Theaterzeitung made use of the
appearance of the composition from Tobias Haslinger for the declaration: 'These
dances of the beloved composer flatter the ear and set our feet in involuntary motion'.
An unauthorised edition of the waltz in Berlin raised
interest in this work. Thus the Souvenir from Berlin became a high point in the creative output of the gifted composer.
(English version by Keith Anderson)
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STRAUSS I, J.: Edition - Vol. 7